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Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Aug;121(8):932-8. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1206124. Epub 2013 May 17.

Associations between fine and coarse particles and mortality in Mediterranean cities: results from the MED-PARTICLES project.

Author information

1
Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece. esamoli@med.uoa.gr

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Few studies have investigated the independent health effects of different size fractions of particulate matter (PM) in multiple locations, especially in Europe.

OBJECTIVES:

We estimated the short-term effects of PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and between 2.5 and 10 μm (PM2.5-10) on all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in 10 European Mediterranean metropolitan areas within the MED-PARTICLES project.

METHODS:

We analyzed data from each city using Poisson regression models, and combined city-specific estimates to derive overall effect estimates. We evaluated the sensitivity of our estimates to co-pollutant exposures and city-specific model choice, and investigated effect modification by age, sex, and season. We applied distributed lag and threshold models to investigate temporal patterns of associations.

RESULTS:

A 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.55% (95% CI: 0.27, 0.84%) increase in all-cause mortality (0-1 day cumulative lag), and a 1.91% increase (95% CI: 0.71, 3.12%) in respiratory mortality (0-5 day lag). In general, associations were stronger for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality than all-cause mortality, during warm versus cold months, and among those ≥ 75 versus < 75 years of age. Associations with PM2.5-10 were positive but not statistically significant in most analyses, whereas associations with PM10 seemed to be driven by PM2.5.

CONCLUSIONS:

We found evidence of adverse effects of PM2.5 on mortality outcomes in the European Mediterranean region. Associations with PM2.5-10 were positive but smaller in magnitude. Associations were stronger for respiratory mortality when cumulative exposures were lagged over 0-5 days, and were modified by season and age.

PMID:
23687008
PMCID:
PMC3734494
DOI:
10.1289/ehp.1206124
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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