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Cell Metab. 2013 Jun 4;17(6):819-37. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2013.04.008. Epub 2013 May 16.

Pharmacology, physiology, and mechanisms of incretin hormone action.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 1X5, Canada.

Abstract

Incretin peptides, principally GLP-1 and GIP, regulate islet hormone secretion, glucose concentrations, lipid metabolism, gut motility, appetite and body weight, and immune function, providing a scientific basis for utilizing incretin-based therapies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Activation of GLP-1 and GIP receptors also leads to nonglycemic effects in multiple tissues, through direct actions on tissues expressing incretin receptors and indirect mechanisms mediated through neuronal and endocrine pathways. Here we contrast the pharmacology and physiology of incretin hormones and review recent advances in mechanisms coupling incretin receptor signaling to pleiotropic metabolic actions in preclinical studies. We discuss whether mechanisms identified in preclinical studies have potential translational relevance for the treatment of human disease and highlight controversies and uncertainties in incretin biology that require resolution in future studies.

PMID:
23684623
DOI:
10.1016/j.cmet.2013.04.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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