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Psychiatry Res. 2013 Dec 30;210(3):857-62. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.04.010. Epub 2013 May 17.

Prevalence and correlates of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence in adolescents with bipolar and cannabis use disorders.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address: jheffner@fhcrc.org.

Abstract

The study examined the prevalence and correlates of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence in adolescents with bipolar and cannabis use disorders. Participants were 80 adolescents between 13 and 22 years of age with co-occurring bipolar I disorder and cannabis abuse or dependence who reported ever trying a cigarette. Diagnostic and symptom severity measures were completed as part of the baseline assessments for a clinical trial. Almost half (49%) of these participants who ever tried a cigarette were current heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day), and 70% met DSM-IV-TR lifetime criteria for nicotine dependence. Heavy smoking was associated with older age, heavier marijuana use and greater compulsive craving, lifetime diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, illicit drug use disorders, and poorer overall functioning. Nicotine dependence was related to White race, higher current mania severity, and poorer overall functioning. These findings suggest that heavy smoking and nicotine dependence were highly prevalent among these adolescents. Although both were associated with greater physical and psychosocial problems, only heavy smoking was linked to a clear pattern of more severe substance-related and psychiatric problems. Further research to elucidate mechanisms and develop interventions to address early, entrenched patterns of co-use of tobacco and marijuana is warranted.

KEYWORDS:

Comorbidity; Dual diagnosis; Mania; Marijuana; Tobacco

PMID:
23684537
PMCID:
PMC3899029
DOI:
10.1016/j.psychres.2013.04.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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