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J Hand Surg Am. 2013 Sep;38(9):1845-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2013.03.019. Epub 2013 May 17.

Classification of congenital anomalies of the hand and upper limb: development and assessment of a new system.

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Department of Hand Surgery and Peripheral Nerve Surgery, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards; The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, Australia.


The Oberg, Manske, and Tonkin (OMT) classification of congenital hand and upper limb anomalies was proposed in 2010 as a replacement for the Swanson International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand classification system, which has been the accepted system of classification for the international surgical community since 1976. The OMT system separates malformations from deformations and dysplasias. Malformations are subdivided according to the axis of formation and differentiation that is primarily affected and whether the anomalies involve the whole limb or the hand plate. This review outlines the development of classification systems and explores the difficulty of incorporating our current knowledge of limb embryogenesis at a molecular level into current systems. An assessment of the efficacy of the OMT classification demonstrates acceptable inter- and intraobserver reliability. A prospective review of 101 patients confirms that all diagnoses could be classified within the OMT system. Consensus expert opinion allowed classification of those conditions for which there is not a clear understanding of the mechanism of dysmorphology. A refined and expanded OMT classification is presented.


Congenital; classification; hand; upper limb

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