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Plant Sci. 2013 Jul;208:20-7. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2013.03.009. Epub 2013 Mar 21.

Genetic identification of a novel locus, ACCELERATED FLOWERING 1 that controls chromatin modification associated with histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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  • 1Department of Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Republic of Korea.


Flowering on time is a critically important for successful reproduction of plants. Here we report an early-flowering mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana, accelerated flowering 1-1D (afl1-1D) that exhibited pleiotropic developmental defects including semi-dwarfism, curly leaf, and increased branching. Genetic analysis showed that afl1-1D mutant is a single, dominant mutant. Chromosomal mapping indicates that AFL1 resides at the middle of chromosome 4, around which no known flowering-related genes have been characterized. Expression analysis and double mutant studies with late flowering mutants in various floral pathways indicated that elevated FT is responsible for the early-flowering of afl1-1D mutant. Interestingly, not only flowering-related genes, but also several floral homeotic genes were ectopically overexpressed in the afl1-1D mutants in both FT-dependent and -independent manner. The degree of histone H3 Lys27-trimethylation (H3K27me3) was reduced in several chromatin including FT, FLC, AG and SEP3 in the afl1-1D, suggesting that afl1-1D might be involved in chromatin modification. In support, double mutant analysis of afl1-1D and lhp1-4 revealed epistatic interaction between afl1-1D and lhp1-4 in regard to flowering control. Taken together, we propose that AFL1 regulate various aspect of development through chromatin modification, particularly associated with H3K27me3 in A. thaliana.

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