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Nat Rev Immunol. 2013 Jun;13(6):453-60. doi: 10.1038/nri3446. Epub 2013 May 17.

The history of Toll-like receptors - redefining innate immunity.

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School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.


The discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) was an important event for immunology research and was recognized as such with the awarding of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Jules Hoffmann and Bruce Beutler, who, together with Ralph Steinman, the third winner of the 2011 Nobel Prize and the person who discovered the dendritic cell, were pioneers in the field of innate immunity. TLRs have a central role in immunity - in this Timeline article, we describe the landmark findings that gave rise to this important field of research.

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