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Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2013 Jul;24(4):348-55. doi: 10.1097/ICU.0b013e32836227bf.

Hormones and dry eye syndrome: an update on what we do and don't know.

Author information

1
University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. emrocha@fmrp.usp.br

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Dry eye syndrome (DES) prevalence is large and its relationship with hormonal diseases is becoming clearer, although more complex. This review provides insight to this association as well as clarifying what remains unanswered about how to interpret and treat findings common to both DES and hormonal diseases.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Several sex hormone-related diseases are associated with DES. Hormone replacement therapy to correct such conditions has conflicting outcomes based on epidemiologic studies and clinical trials. Thyroid-associated diseases are frequently involved in DES and must be investigated in cases where the cause of the ocular disease is undetermined. Diabetes mellitus is one of the major causes of DES, whereas correcting the metabolic imbalance minimizes its ocular symptomology. Gene therapy to treat DES-related hormonal diseases is a promising option based on animal studies.

SUMMARY:

Diagnosis and management of hormonal diseases can minimize the ocular surface damage and severity of DES. Clinical care of DES includes patient evaluation of hormonal status. Future research requires clarification of the underlying disease mechanisms and identifying novel strategies to reprogram the endocrine system rather than chronic medication usage.

PMID:
23680756
DOI:
10.1097/ICU.0b013e32836227bf
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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