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BJOG. 2013 Sep;120 Suppl 2:9-26, v. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12047. Epub 2013 May 17.

The objectives, design and implementation of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

Collaborators (243)

Katz M, Bhan MK, Garza C, Zaidi S, Langer A, Rothwell PM, Weatherall D, Bhutta ZA, Villar J, Kennedy S, Altman DG, Barros FC, Bertino E, Burton F, Carvalho M, Cheikh Ismail L, Chumlea WC, Gravett MG, Jaffer YA, Lambert A, Lumbiganon P, Noble JA, Pang RY, Papageorghiou AT, Purwar M, Rivera J, Victora C, Villar J, Altman DG, Bhutta ZA, Cheikh Ismail L, Kennedy S, Lambert A, Noble JA, Papageorghiou AT, Villar J, Kennedy S, Cheikh Ismail L, Lambert A, Papageorghiou AT, Shorten M, Hoch L, Knight HE, Ohuma EO, Cosgrove C, Blakey I, Altman DG, Roseman F, Kunnawar N, Gu SH, Wang JH, Wu MH, Domingues M, Gilli P, Juodvirsiene L, Hoch L, Musee N, Al-Jabri H, Waller S, Cosgrove C, Muninzwa D, Ohuma EO, Yellappan D, Carter A, Reade D, Miller R, Papageorghiou AT, Salomon L, Leston A, Mitidieri A, Al-Aamri F, Paulsene W, Sande J, Al-Zadjali WK, Batiuk C, Bornemeier S, Carvalho M, Dighe M, Gaglioti P, Jacinta N, Jaiswal S, Noble JA, Oas K, Oberto M, Olearo E, Owende MG, Shah J, Sohoni S, Todros T, Venkataraman M, Vinayak S, Wang L, Wilson D, Wu QQ, Zaidi S, Zhang Y, Chamberlain P, Danelon D, Sarris I, Dhami J, Ioannou C, Knight CL, Napolitano R, Pace C, Mkrtychyan V, Cheikh Ismail L, Chumlea WC, Al-Habsi F, Bhutta ZA, Carter A, Alija M, Jimenez-Bustos JM, Kizidio J, Puglia F, Kunnawar N, Liu H, Lloyd S, Mota D, Ochieng R, Rossi C, Sanchez Luna M, Shen YJ, Knight HE, Rocco DA, Frederick IO, Bhutta ZA, Albernaz E, Batra M, Bhat BA, Bertino E, Di Nicola P, Giuliani F, Rovelli I, McCormick K, Ochieng R, Pang RY, Paul V, Rajan V, Wilkinson A, Varalda A, Eskenazi B, Corra LA, Dolk H, Golding J, Matijasevich A, de Wet T, Zhang JJ, Bradman A, Finkton D, Burnham O, Farhi F, Barros FC, Domingues M, Fonseca S, Leston A, Mitidieri A, Mota D, Sclowitz IK, da Silveira MF, Pang RY, He YP, Pan Y, Shen YJ, Wu MH, Wu QQ, Wang JH, Yuan Y, Zhang Y, Purwar M, Choudhary A, Choudhary S, Deshmukh S, Dongaonkar D, Ketkar M, Khedikar V, Kunnawar N, Mahorkar C, Mulik I, Saboo K, Shembekar C, Singh A, Taori V, Tayade K, Somani A, Bertino E, Di Nicola P, Frigerio M, Gilli G, Gilli P, Giolito M, Giuliani F, Oberto M, Occhi L, Rossi C, Rovelli I, Signorile F, Todros T, Carvalho M, Kizidio J, Ochieng R, Shah J, Stones W, Vinayak S, Musee N, Kisiang'ani C, Muninzwa D, Jaffer YA, Al-Abri J, Al-Abduwani J, Al-Habsi FM, Al-Lawatiya H, Al-Rashidiya B, Al-Zadjali WK, Juangco FR, Venkataraman M, Al-Jabri H, Yellappan D, Kennedy S, Cheikh Ismail L, Papageorghiou AT, Roseman F, Lambert A, Lloyd S, Napolitano R, Ioannou C, Sarris I, Gravett MG, Batiuk C, Batra M, Bornemeier S, Dighe M, Oas K, Paulsene W, Wilson D, Frederick IO, Andersen HF, Abbott SE, Carter AA, Algren H, Rocco DA, Sorensen TK, Enquobahrie D, Waller S.

Author information

Nuffield Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, and Oxford Maternal & Perinatal Health Institute, Green Templeton College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Ketkar Nursing Home, Nagpur, India Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde e Comportamento, Universidade Católica de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil Faculty of Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Nairobi, Kenya Department of Family & Community Health, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Cattedra di Neonatologia, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA Division of Women & Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.


INTERGROWTH-21(st) is a multicentre, multiethnic, population-based project, being conducted in eight geographical areas (Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, UK and USA), with technical support from four global specialised units, to study growth, health and nutrition from early pregnancy to infancy. It aims to produce prescriptive growth standards, which conceptually extend the World Health Organization (WHO) Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) to cover fetal and newborn life. The new international standards will describe: (1) fetal growth assessed by clinical and ultrasound measures; (2) postnatal growth of term and preterm infants up to 2 years of age; and (3) the relationship between birthweight, length and head circumference, gestational age and perinatal outcomes. As the project has selected healthy cohorts with no obvious risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction, these standards will describe how all fetuses and newborns should grow, as opposed to traditional charts that describe how some have grown at a given place and time. These growth patterns will be related to morbidity and mortality to identify levels of perinatal risk. Additional aims include phenotypic characterisation of the preterm and impaired fetal growth syndromes and development of a prediction model, based on multiple ultrasound measurements, to estimate gestational age for use in pregnant women without access to early/frequent antenatal care.


Fetal; INTERGROWTH-21st; growth; newborn; nutrition; preterm; standards

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