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J Med Food. 2013 May;16(5):383-95. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2012.2583.

Diabetes-ameliorating effects of fermented red ginseng and causal effects on hormonal interactions: testing the hypothesis by multiple group path analysis.

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1
Department of Food and Nutrition, Research of Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

Although diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome (MtS) vary among various health professionals and organizations, blood glucose dysregulation and insulin resistance are common to all definitions. Red ginseng is beneficial for glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity but the mechanism is not yet elucidated. Ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3 act as ligands of the estrogen receptor, and Rh2 and compound K act as ligands of the glucocorticoid receptors, which may influence the diabetes markers. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there are significant causal relationships among diabetes-related markers and several hormones, and assess whether or not the consumption of fermented red ginseng (FRG) influences these causal relationships by multiple group path analysis and conventional statistical analyses. The 93 postmenopausal women were randomly divided into two groups for a double-blind trial. FRG powder and placebo were provided for 2 weeks. The data were analyzed by multiple group path analysis and the mean between groups were compared. The model's goodness of fit was excellent, with a root mean square error of approximation of 0.00, and comparative fit index of 1.00. The FRG group exhibited significantly increased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), growth hormone (GH), and estradiol (E2), and they exhibited decreased levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. With regard to the hypothesis, the blood glucose lowering effects of FRG were due to the negative effects of aldosterone and increased GH, which was associated with DHEAS and E2. Even though the differences of variables between both groups were small, the total effects of these variables may indicate beneficial changes for the prevention of diabetes in healthy postmenopausal women.

PMID:
23675990
DOI:
10.1089/jmf.2012.2583
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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