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Int J Biomed Sci. 2012 Dec;8(4):219-32.

Multiple Sites of Type II Site Ligand (Luteolin and BMHPC) Regulation of Gene Expression in PC-3 Cells.

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Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.


Type II [(3)H]estradiol binding site ligands including luteolin (a naturally occurring bioflavonoid) and synthetic compounds such as 2,6-bis((3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylene)cyclohexanone (BMHPC) inhibit normal and malignant prostate cell (PC-3, LNCaP, DU-145) proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Type II sites represent a binding domain on histone H4 possibly involved in an epigenetic mechanism for controlling gene transcription. Treatment of PC-3 human prostate cancer cells with luteolin or BMHPC modulated the expression of a number of genes in the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway (EGFRSP) and cell cycle pathway (CCP). Pronounced stimulation (400-2000% of control) of c-FOS and p21 RNA expression was observed, suggesting that these were primary sites of action. Both compounds also caused irreversible G2/M arrest (p<0.001). siRNA's for c-FOS or p21 reduced the RNA expression of their respective targets by 85-95%, with minimal effects on cell proliferation. Furthermore, neither siRNA alone (single knockdown), or in combination (double knockdown), blocked luteolin or BMHPC inhibition of PC-3 cell proliferation. Thus, although c-FOS and p21 are known to modulate the expression of genes in the ESGRSP (EGFR, SOS, GRB2, JNK1, MKK4, RasGAP) and CCP (CCNA2, CCNE2, CDC25A, CDKN1A, CDKN1B, p27, PLK1) involved in the regulation of cell proliferation by luteolin and BMHPC, the c-FOS and p21 siRNA knockdown studies reported here suggest that c-FOS and p21 may be secondary bystanders in the overall response to these ligands in the regulation of PC-3 cell proliferation.


BMHPC; c-FOS; luteolin; p21; prostate cancer; siRNA knockdown; type II sites


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