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Radiographics. 2013 May;33(3):633-52. doi: 10.1148/rg.333125728.

Imaging of vascular complications and their consequences following transplantation in the abdomen.

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  • 1Departments of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada. timgy@yahoo.com

Abstract

Transplantation is the surgical treatment of choice for end-stage organ failure. Transplantation procedures performed in the abdomen include liver, renal, pancreas, islet, intestinal, and multivisceral transplantations. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the posttransplantation setting for monitoring the transplant allograft and screening for complications. Knowledge of the surgical techniques employed in abdominal transplantation is essential because it facilitates radiologic understanding and interpretation of the posttransplantation anatomy. This article includes a basic description of the standard surgical techniques performed in the abdomen, with emphasis on the relevant vascular anastomotic reconstructions used. Posttransplantation complications can be broadly classified as vascular or nonvascular in origin. Many of these complications can be accurately depicted and characterized at imaging and dealt with definitively by using interventional radiology techniques, which can be graft- and life-saving and can obviate further complex surgical intervention. The article discusses imaging appearances of vascular complications and their consequences after transplantation in the abdomen. These vascular complications include arterial thrombosis, arterial stenosis, venous thrombosis and stenosis, arteriovenous fistula formation, and pseudoaneurysm formation. The relevant predisposing factors, clinical features, imaging appearances, and potential treatment options for vascular complications of various types of transplantation are presented in a logical and integrated fashion. Knowledge and imaging recognition of the posttransplantation vascular complications discussed in this article will aid radiologists in accurate imaging characterization and thereby facilitate appropriate clinical management and therapy.

PMID:
23674767
DOI:
10.1148/rg.333125728
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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