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IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2013 Sep;60(9):2603-13. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2013.2261816. Epub 2013 May 6.

Automatic distortion correction of endoscopic images captured with wide-angle zoom lens.

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Department of Computer Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan.


Operation in minimally invasive surgery is more difficult since the surgeons perform operations without haptic feedback or depth perception. Moreover, the field of view perceived by the surgeons through endoscopy is usually quite limited. The goal of this paper is to allow surgeons to see wide-angle images from endoscopy without the drawback of lens distortion. The proposed distortion correction process consists of lens calibration and real-time image warping. The calibration step is to estimate the parameters in the lens distortion model. We propose a fully automatic Hough-entropy-based calibration algorithm, which provides calibration results comparable to the previous manual calibration method. To achieve real-time correction, we use graphics processing unit to warp the image in parallel. In addition, surgeons may adjust the focal length of a lens during the operation. Real-time distortion correction of a zoomable lens is impossible by using traditional calibration methods because the tedious calibration process has to repeat again if focal length is changed. We derive a formula to describe the relationship between the distortion parameter, focal length, and image boundary. Hence, we can estimate the focal length for a zoomable lens from endoscopic images online and achieve real-time lens distortion correction.

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