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J Biophotonics. 2014 Jan;7(1-2):9-22. doi: 10.1002/jbio.201300031. Epub 2013 May 14.

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: overcoming technical barriers for clinical translation.

Author information

1
Biophotonics Imaging Laboratory, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 405 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. htu@illinois.edu.

Abstract

Clinical translation of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy is of great interest because of the advantages of noninvasive label-free imaging, high sensitivity, and chemical specificity. For this to happen, we have identified and review the technical barriers that must be overcome. Prior investigations have developed advanced techniques (features), each of which can be used to effectively overcome one particular technical barrier. However, the implementation of one or a small number of these advanced features in previous attempts for clinical translation has often introduced more tradeoffs than benefits. In this review, we outline a strategy that would integrate multiple advanced features to overcome all the technical barriers simultaneously, effectively reduce tradeoffs, and synergistically optimize CARS microscopy for clinical translation. The operation of the envisioned system incorporates coherent Raman micro-spectroscopy for identifying vibrational biomolecular markers of disease and single-frequency (or hyperspectral) Raman imaging of these specific biomarkers for real-time in vivo diagnostics and monitoring.

KEYWORDS:

clinical optical imaging; coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy; multiphoton imaging; stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

PMID:
23674234
PMCID:
PMC4486077
DOI:
10.1002/jbio.201300031
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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