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Curr Sports Med Rep. 2013 May-Jun;12(3):190-9. doi: 10.1249/JSR.0b013e318296190b.

Recognition and rehabilitation of the female athlete triad/tetrad: a multidisciplinary approach.

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Women's Sports Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19146, USA.


While the benefits of physical activity are numerous, the female athlete triad poses a significant health risk to young athletes. Emerging research links the triad to endothelial dysfunction--a sentinel event in cardiovascular disease--suggesting that this complex interplay of metabolic and endocrine factors may be described more accurately as a tetrad. Effective treatment of the triad/tetrad requires a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis must be placed on prevention, recognition, and treatment of triad for the promotion of healthy nutritional and activity profiles in female athletes across their lifespans.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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