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J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2013 Jun;18(2):233-7. doi: 10.1007/s10911-013-9292-6. Epub 2013 May 11.

A method for electroporation to study gene function in mammary gland development.

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Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Brain Korea 21 project, Oral Science Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Yonsei Center of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.


To reveal the specific functions of various genes during embryonic development, the manipulation of genes using techniques such as electroporation is of fundamental importance for providing direct evidence concerning function or downstream activation of signaling networks. In vitro embryo culture and electroporation are useful techniques to introduce foreign genes, for developmental biology studies. Among the various mammalian culture techniques, Trowell culture is suitable for studies of embryonic mammary gland development because of its stability and ease of use in conjunction with electroporation technique application. The manipulation of gene expression using electroporation is a useful technique for the functional analysis of a particular gene. In this protocol, full steps for electroporation and in vitro embryo culture have been described for use in embryonic mammary gland development research.

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