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Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Sep;94(3):394-9. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2013.96. Epub 2013 May 9.

A meta-analysis of CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype and metoprolol pharmacokinetics.

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Division of Clinical and Translational Research, Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.


Metoprolol, a commonly prescribed β-blocker, is primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), an enzyme with substantial genetic heterogeneity. Several smaller studies have shown that metoprolol pharmacokinetics is influenced by CYP2D6 genotype and metabolizer phenotype. To increase robustness of metoprolol pharmacokinetic estimates, a systematic review and meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic studies that administered a single oral dose of immediate-release metoprolol were performed. Pooled analysis (n = 264) demonstrated differences in peak plasma metoprolol concentration, area under the concentration-time curve, elimination half-life, and apparent oral clearance that were 2.3-, 4.9-, 2.3-, and 5.9-fold between extensive and poor metabolizers, respectively, and 5.3-, 13-, 2.6-, and 15-fold between ultrarapid and poor metabolizers (all P < 0.001), respectively. Enantiomer-specific analysis revealed genotype-dependent enantio-selective metabolism, with nearly 40% greater R- than S-metoprolol metabolism in ultrarapid and extensive metabolizers. This study demonstrates a marked effect of CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype on metoprolol pharmacokinetics and confirms enantiomer-specific metabolism of metoprolol.

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