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Vaccine. 2013 Jun 24;31(29):3025-33. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.04.050. Epub 2013 May 9.

Safety and immunogenicity of IMVAMUNE® smallpox vaccine using different strategies for a post event scenario.

Author information

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Allergy & Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA. freyse@slu.edu

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Reintroduction of Variola major as an agent of bioterrorism remains a concern. A shortened dosing schedule of Bavarian Nordic's (BN) IMVAMUNE(®) (modified vaccinia Ankara vaccine against smallpox) was compared to the currently recommended 0- and 28-day schedule for non-inferiority by evaluating the magnitude and kinetics of the immune responses.

METHODS:

Subjects were assigned to receive IMVAMUNE or placebo administered subcutaneously on Days 0 and 7, Days 0 and 28, or Day 0. Blood was collected for antibody and cell-mediated immune assays. Subjects were followed for safety for 12 months after last vaccination.

RESULTS:

The primary endpoint of this study was the geometric mean antibody titers (GMT) at 14 days post last vaccination. Of 208 subjects enrolled, 191 received vaccine (Group: 0+7, Group: 0+28 and Group: 0) and 17 received placebo. Moderate/severe systemic reactogenicity after any vaccination were reported by 31.1%, 25.4%, and 28.6% of the subjects for Group: 0+7, Group: 0+28, and Group: 0, respectively (Chi-square test, P=0.77). Based on BN's Plaque Reduction Assay GMTs, Group: 0+7 was non-inferior to Group: 0+28 at Day 4, 180, and 365 after the second vaccination. On Day 14, Group: 0+7 and Group: 0+28 GMT were 10.8 (CI: 9.0, 12.9) and 30.2 (CI: 22.1, 41.1), respectively. Based on BN's Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the proportion of subjects with positive titers for Group: 0+28 was significantly greater than that for Group: 0+7 after second vaccination at Days 4 and 180. By Day 14 after the second dose, the IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) responses were similar for Group: 0+28 and Group: 0+7.

CONCLUSION:

Overall, a standard dose of IMVAMUNE (0.5 mL of 1 x 10(8) TCID/mL) administered subcutaneously was safe and well tolerated. A second dose of IMVAMUNE at Day 28 compared to Day 7 provided greater antibody responses and the maximal number of responders. By Day 14 after the second dose, IFN-γ ELISPOT responses were similar for Group: 0+28 and Group: 0+7.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00437021.

PMID:
23664987
PMCID:
PMC3755481
DOI:
10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.04.050
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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