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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2013 Jun;42 Suppl:S29-35. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2013.04.008. Epub 2013 May 8.

Management of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients.

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1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Cairo Street P.O. Box 11-0236/11D, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020, Beirut, Lebanon.

Abstract

Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at increased risk of encountering bloodstream infections (BSIs) with Candida spp., associated with an elevated crude mortality rate. This supports the significance of early detection of infection and identification of the most effective management approach. A review of the various antifungal treatments and an evaluation of the diverse management approaches for invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients is necessary for guiding evidence-based decision-making. Different early detection schemes for invasive candidiasis are well documented in the literature. Other than the common use of blood cultures, new methods entail the use of risk prediction scores and biomarker tests. Regarding management strategies, different options are currently supported. These include prophylaxis, empirical therapy, pre-emptive therapy, and treatment of culture-documented infections. The choice of treatment is greatly dependent on several factors related to the patient and/or to the surrounding environment. Attention needs to be given to previous exposure to azoles, epidemiological data on dominant Candida spp. in local ICUs, severity of illness and associated morbidities. This paper summarises the most recent literature as well as the guidelines issued by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The objective is to identify the best diagnosis and management approaches for serious Candida infections in critically ill patients. In addition, this article addresses an important aspect associated with managing candidaemia in critically ill patients pertaining to the decision for intravenous catheter removal.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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