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FEBS J. 2013 Sep;280(17):4131-48. doi: 10.1111/febs.12338. Epub 2013 Jun 18.

Interleukin-6 myokine signaling in skeletal muscle: a double-edged sword?

Author information

1
Cell Biology Group, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Pompeu Fabra University (UPF), Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), CIBER on Neurodegenerative diseases (CIBERNED), Barcelona, Spain. pura.munoz@upf.edu

Abstract

Interleukin (IL)-6 is a cytokine with pleiotropic functions in different tissues and organs. Skeletal muscle produces and releases significant levels of IL-6 after prolonged exercise and is therefore considered as a myokine. Muscle is also an important target of the cytokine. IL-6 signaling has been associated with stimulation of hypertrophic muscle growth and myogenesis through regulation of the proliferative capacity of muscle stem cells. Additional beneficial effects of IL-6 include regulation of energy metabolism, which is related to the capacity of actively contracting muscle to synthesize and release IL-6. Paradoxically, deleterious actions for IL-6 have also been proposed, such as promotion of atrophy and muscle wasting. We review the current evidence for these apparently contradictory effects, the mechanisms involved and discuss their possible biological implications.

KEYWORDS:

IL-6; growth/atrophy; inflammation; metabolism; myogenesis; myokine; regeneration; satellite cell; signaling pathway; skeletal muscle

PMID:
23663276
PMCID:
PMC4163639
DOI:
10.1111/febs.12338
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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