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FEBS J. 2013 Dec;280(23):5981-93. doi: 10.1111/febs.12335. Epub 2013 Jun 10.

The hallmarks of Parkinson's disease.

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Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB), University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.


Since the discovery of dopamine as a neurotransmitter in the 1950s, Parkinson's disease (PD) research has generated a rich and complex body of knowledge, revealing PD to be an age-related multifactorial disease, influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The tremendous complexity of the disease is increased by a nonlinear progression of the pathogenesis between molecular, cellular and organic systems. In this minireview, we explore the complexity of PD and propose a systems-based approach, organizing the available information around cellular disease hallmarks. We encourage our peers to adopt this cell-based view with the aim of improving communication in interdisciplinary research endeavors targeting the molecular events, modulatory cell-to-cell signaling pathways and emerging clinical phenotypes related to PD.


Parkinson's disease; cellular hallmarks; environmental factors; genetic factors; systems biology; translational research

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