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J Biol Chem. 2013 Jun 28;288(26):18872-84. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.472381. Epub 2013 May 9.

The arrestin-selective angiotensin AT1 receptor agonist [Sar1,Ile4,Ile8]-AngII negatively regulates bradykinin B2 receptor signaling via AT1-B2 receptor heterodimers.

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Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA.


The renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems are key regulators of vascular tone and inflammation. Angiotensin II, the principal effector of the renin-angiotensin system, promotes vasoconstriction by activating angiotensin AT1 receptors. The opposing effects of the kallikrein-kinin system are mediated by bradykinin acting on B1 and B2 bradykinin receptors. The renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems engage in cross-talk at multiple levels, including the formation of AT1-B2 receptor heterodimers. In primary vascular smooth muscle cells, we find that the arrestin pathway-selective AT1 agonist, [Sar(1),Ile(4),Ile(8)]-AngII, but not the neutral AT1 antagonist, losartan, inhibits endogenous B2 receptor signaling. In a transfected HEK293 cell model that recapitulates this effect, we find that the actions of [Sar(1),Ile(4), Ile(8)]-AngII require the AT1 receptor and result from arrestin-dependent co-internalization of AT1-B2 heterodimers. BRET50 measurements indicate that AT1 and B2 receptors efficiently heterodimerize. In cells expressing both receptors, pretreatment with [Sar(1),Ile(4),Ile(8)]-AngII blunts B2 receptor activation of Gq/11-dependent intracellular calcium influx and Gi/o-dependent inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. In contrast, [Sar(1),Ile(4),Ile(8)]-AngII has no effect on B2 receptor ligand affinity or bradykinin-induced arrestin3 recruitment. Both radioligand binding assays and quantitative microscopy-based analysis demonstrate that [Sar(1),Ile(4),Ile(8)]-AngII promotes internalization of AT1-B2 heterodimers. Thus, [Sar(1),Ile(4),Ile(8)]-AngII exerts lateral allosteric modulation of B2 receptor signaling by binding to the orthosteric ligand binding site of the AT1 receptor and promoting co-sequestration of AT1-B2 heterodimers. Given the opposing roles of the renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems in vivo, the distinct properties of arrestin pathway-selective and neutral AT1 receptor ligands may translate into different pharmacologic actions.


Angiotensin; Arrestin; Biased Agonism; Bradykinin; G Protein-coupled Receptors (GPCR); G Proteins; Heterodimerization; Sequestration; Signal Transduction

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