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Violence Against Women. 2013 Apr;19(4):503-17. doi: 10.1177/1077801213487057. Epub 2013 May 8.

The relationship between postpartum depression, domestic violence, childhood violence, and substance use: epidemiologic study of a large community sample.

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Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.


The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of interpersonal violence and substance use to the prediction of postpartum depressive symptomatology. A community-based sample of 634 women in British Columbia, Canada was screened for interpersonal violence and substance use using the Antenatal Psychosocial Health Assessment (ALPHA) form. Of these women, 497 (78%) subsequently completed questionnaires at 8 weeks postpartum to assess for depressive symptomatology using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). A predictive model for postpartum depressive symptomatology (EPDS > 9) was developed using regression analysis. Findings suggest that women who experience past or current interpersonal violence or personal or partner substance use problems should be considered for targeted screening for postpartum depression (PPD).


child abuse; interpersonal violence; postpartum depression (PPD); risk factors; substance abuse; woman abuse

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