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J Neurosci. 2013 May 8;33(19):8567-74. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5810-12.2013.

Genomic imprinting effects of the X chromosome on brain morphology.

Author information

1
Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Abstract

There is increasing evidence that genomic imprinting, a process by which certain genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner, can influence neurogenetic and psychiatric manifestations. While some data suggest possible imprinting effects of the X chromosome on physical and cognitive characteristics in humans, there is no compelling evidence that X-linked imprinting affects brain morphology. To address this issue, we investigated regional cortical volume, thickness, and surface area in 27 healthy controls and 40 prepubescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS), a condition caused by the absence of one X chromosome. Of the young girls with TS, 23 inherited their X chromosome from their mother (X(m)) and 17 from their father (X(p)). Our results confirm the existence of significant differences in brain morphology between girls with TS and controls, and reveal the presence of a putative imprinting effect among the TS groups: girls with X(p) demonstrated thicker cortex than those with X(m) in the temporal regions bilaterally, while X(m) individuals showed bilateral enlargement of gray matter volume in the superior frontal regions compared with X(p). These data suggest the existence of imprinting effects of the X chromosome that influence both cortical thickness and volume during early brain development, and help to explain variability in cognitive and behavioral manifestations of TS with regard to the parental origin of the X chromosome.

PMID:
23658194
PMCID:
PMC3696011
DOI:
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5810-12.2013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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