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Orthop Surg. 2013 May;5(2):130-4. doi: 10.1111/os.12036.

Digital three-dimensional model of lumbar region 4-5 and its adjacent structures based on a virtual Chinese human.

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Department of Orthopaedics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Liwan District, Guangzhou, China.



To study the methods for constructing a digitized three-dimensional (3D) model of a virtual lumbar region and its adjacent structures in order to assist anatomical study and virtual surgery.


Images of DSCF5375-p1 to DSCF5745-p1 were taken from the database of the digitized Virtual Chinese human of Southern Medical University in Guangzhou. This region encompasses the superior facet joint of L4 to the inferior edge of the intervertebral body of L5. The regions of interest were interactively segmented from the images utilizing Adobe Photoshop software. The images were further processed using format conversion and segmentation. Finally, a 3D model of the L4-5 region and its neighboring structures was reconstructed with the assistance of Mimics 10.01 software.


A digitized 3D model of this part of the virtual lumbar spine and its adjacent structures was reconstructed. This model allows all constructed structures to be displayed individually or jointly, moved or rotated arbitrarily, setting of different transparencies and convenient measurement of the diameters and angles of the reconstructed structures. The 3D model precisely displays the anatomical relationships between all structures and provides a reliable 3D model for a spinal endoscopic surgery simulation system.


Visualization of the digitized 3D reconstruction of the virtual lower lumbar region displays this region and its adjacent structures stereoscopically and in actuality, thus providing morphological data concerning anatomy, image diagnosis and virtual operations in this region.

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