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Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013 Jun;25(3):338-43. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e328360bbe7.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome in children: physiology and management.

Author information

1
Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Center for Excellence in Pulmonary Biology, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA. cornfield@stanford.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

The present review seeks to review the pathophysiologic processes that underlie the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children. The review intends to provide the physiologic foundation for the treatment strategies that are associated with the most optimal outcome.

RECENT FINDINGS:

In infants and children, ARDS remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Although any infant or child can develop ARDS, children who have experienced trauma, pneumonia, aspiration, or immune compromise are at increased risk. Data indicate that adoption of an open-lung ventilation strategy, characterized by sufficient positive end-expiratory pressure to avoid atelectasis, a tidal volume that is limited to less than 5-7  cc/kg per breath and a plateau pressure of 30  cm of water or less provides the greatest likelihood of survival and minimizes lung injury. The relative benefits of strategies such as high frequency oscillatory ventilation, surfactant replacement therapy and inhaled nitric oxide are considered.

SUMMARY:

ARDS remains a cause of significant mortality and morbidity in children. By employing sound physiologic principles, clinical outcomes can be optimized.

PMID:
23657244
DOI:
10.1097/MOP.0b013e328360bbe7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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