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Water Sci Technol. 2013;67(9):1901-7. doi: 10.2166/wst.2013.055.

Stabilization of source-separated human urine by chemical oxidation.

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School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China.


The inhibitory effect of ozone and hydrogen peroxide (HP) on urea hydrolysis in stored urine was investigated and compared. Ozone showed less effect on urea hydrolysis due to the complicated composition of urine (including a large amount of urease-producing bacteria) and bacteria regeneration. Ozone concentration and total heterotrophic bacteria analysis demonstrated that residual ozone concentration decreased by 43% within 15 hr from 13.50 to 7.72 mg/L in the one-time ozonation urine test, and finally completely decomposed within 4 days. In addition, bacteria regenerated quickly after ozone completely decomposed. However, HP showed a significant effect on inhibiting urea hydrolysis not only in stored urine but also in fecal-contaminated urine. The suitable doses of applied HP to inhibit urea hydrolysis in stored urine, concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 g feces per liter of fecal-contaminated urine, were 0.03, 0.16 and 0.23 mol/L, respectively. The urea concentrations after 2 months stored were 7,145, 7,109 and 7,234 mg/L, respectively.

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