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Am J Med Sci. 2014 Apr;347(4):331-7. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e31829107ea.

Cardiac troponins: bench to bedside interpretation in cardiac disease.

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Department of Internal Medicine, and Division of Cardiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York; and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Syracuse, New York.


Cardiac troponins are the preferred biomarkers for the determination of acute myocardial necrosis. The high sensitivity of the available assays has significantly increased the detection of microscopic amounts of myocardial damage. Although compelling evidence indicates that elevated cardiac troponins are markers of poor prognosis and increased mortality, irrespective of the clinical scenario, small elevations can be seen in protean conditions and may confound the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. Emerging evidence suggests multiple different cellular mechanisms leading to cardiac troponin release, which challenge long held paradigms such as equivalency between troponin release into the circulation and irreversible cell death. Hence, knowledge of the physiology and pathophysiology of these cardiac biomarkers is essential for their accurate interpretation and consequent correct clinical diagnosis. Herein, the current relevant information about cardiac troponins is discussed, with special emphasis on pathophysiology and clinical correlates.

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