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Tissue Eng Part A. 2013 Oct;19(19-20):2188-200. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2012.0352. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

Supplementation of exogenous adenosine 5'-triphosphate enhances mechanical properties of 3D cell-agarose constructs for cartilage tissue engineering.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, 622 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Abstract

Formation of tissue-engineered cartilage is greatly enhanced by mechanical stimulation. However, direct mechanical stimulation is not always a suitable method, and the utilization of mechanisms underlying mechanotransduction might allow for a highly effective and less aggressive alternate means of stimulation. In particular, the purinergic, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-mediated signaling pathway is strongly implicated in mechanotransduction within the articular cartilage. We investigated the effects of transient and continuous exogenous ATP supplementation on mechanical properties of cartilaginous constructs engineered using bovine chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) encapsulated in an agarose hydrogel. For both cell types, we have observed significant increases in equilibrium and dynamic compressive moduli after transient ATP treatment applied in the fourth week of cultivation. Continuous ATP treatment over 4 weeks of culture only slightly improved the mechanical properties of the constructs, without major changes in the total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen content. Structure-function analyses showed that transiently ATP-treated constructs, and in particular those based on hMSCs, had the highest level of correlation between compositional and mechanical properties. Transiently treated groups showed intense staining of the territorial matrix for GAGs and collagen type II. These results indicate that transient ATP treatment can improve functional mechanical properties of cartilaginous constructs based on chondrogenic cells and agarose hydrogels, possibly by improving the structural organization of the bulk phase and territorial extracellular matrix (ECM), that is, by increasing correlation slopes between the content of the ECM components (GAG, collagen) and mechanical properties of the construct.

PMID:
23651296
PMCID:
PMC3761430
DOI:
10.1089/ten.TEA.2012.0352
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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