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Biol Pharm Bull. 2013;36(5):833-7.

Effects of oakmoss and its components on biofilm formation of Legionella pneumophila.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Sakado, Saitama 350–0295, Japan.


Oakmoss and its components are known as antibacterial agents, specifically against Legionella pneumophila. In the present study, we investigated the effects of oakmoss and its components (phenol, didepside and isochromen derivatives) on L. pneumophila biofilm formation, with particular reference to the bactericidal activity (minimum bactericidal concentration; MBC) of these components against the bacterial cells in the biofilm. Of the 20 compounds tested, two didepside derivatives and four phenol derivatives reduced biofilm formation by more than 50% of that observed for the control at their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations (1/2×MIC). The inhibitory activities of these compounds were either equivalent to or greater than that of the clarithromycin reference. Isochromen derivatives had no effect on biofilm formation. Analysis of bactericidal activity of didepside and isochromen derivatives revealed that three of four didepside derivatives and one of four isochromen derivatives exhibited high bactericidal activity (MBC: 32.0-74.7 µg/mL) against the L. pneumophila in the biofilm after 24 h or 48 h of co-incubation; the antibacterial activities of these compounds were almost equivalent to clarithromycin and chlorhexidine gluconate (MBC: 42.7-64.0 µg/mL) that were used as references. Thus, based on their anti-biofilm forming and bactericidal activities, didepside derivatives are considered to be good candidates for disinfectants against L. pneumophila.

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