Send to

Choose Destination
Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Nov;15(11):1934-8. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntt060. Epub 2013 May 3.

Mobile contingency management as an adjunctive smoking cessation treatment for smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder.

Author information

Research and Development Service, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC;



Smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) smoke at higher prevalence rates and are more likely to relapse early in a quit attempt. Innovative methods are needed to enhance quit rates, particularly in the early quit period. Web-based contingency-management (CM) approaches have been found helpful in reducing smoking among other difficult-to-treat smoker populations but are limited by the need for computers. This pilot study builds on the web-based CM approach by evaluating a smartphone-based application for CM named mobile CM (mCM).


Following a 2-week training period, 22 smokers with PTSD were randomized to a 4-week mCM condition or a yoked (i.e., noncontingent 4-week mCM condition). All smokers received 2 smoking cessation counseling sessions, nicotine replacement, and bupropion. Participants could earn up to $690 ($530 for mCM, $25.00 for assessments and office visits [up to 5], and $35.00 for equipment return). The average earned was $314.00.


Compliance was high during the 2-week training period (i.e., transmission of videos) (93%) and the 4-week treatment period (92%). Compliance rates did not differ by group assignment. Four-week quit rates (verified with CO) were 82% for the mCM and 45% for the yoked controls. Three-month self-report quit rates were 50% in the mCM and 18% in the yoked controls.


mCM may be a useful adjunctive smoking cessation treatment component for reducing smoking among smokers with PTSD, particularly early in a smoking quit attempt.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center