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J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013 Aug;71(8):1406-14. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2013.02.010. Epub 2013 May 1.

3-dimensional facial simulation in orthognathic surgery: is it accurate?

Author information

1
Department of Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. sschendel@stanford.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The purpose of this study was to measure the accuracy of 3D computer simulation of soft tissue changes after orthognathic surgery.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Consecutive patients who underwent orthognathic surgery were studied by photogrammetric facial scanning and cone-beam computed tomography before and after surgery. The photogrammetric scan was then fused to the cone-beam computed tomogram, creating a patient-specific image. The surgery was simulated in 3D form and the simulated soft tissue face was compared with the actual facial scan obtained 6 months postoperatively. Absolute millimeter differences between the simulated and actual postoperative changes in selected cephalometric skin markings were computed.

RESULTS:

The study was composed of 23 subjects (mean age, 31 yr; 13 women and 10 men). Eighteen different cephalometric landmarks were measured (total, 28). For 15 landmarks, the difference between actual and simulated measurements was smaller than 0.5 mm. Only 3 landmarks had a difference of 0.5 mm, and these were in the region of the labial landmarks.

CONCLUSION:

Based on the present study, 3-dimensional computer surgical simulation of the soft tissue of the face for routine orthognathic surgery is accurate enough for routine clinical use.

PMID:
23642546
DOI:
10.1016/j.joms.2013.02.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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