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Crit Care. 2013 May 3;17(3):R84. doi: 10.1186/cc12705.

Meropenem and piperacillin/tazobactam prescribing in critically ill patients: does augmented renal clearance affect pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment when extended infusions are used?

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Correct antibiotic dosing remains a challenge for the clinician. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of augmented renal clearance on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment in critically ill patients receiving meropenem or piperacillin/tazobactam, administered as an extended infusion.

METHODS:

This was a prospective, observational, pharmacokinetic study executed at the medical and surgical intensive care unit at a large academic medical center. Elegible patients were adult patients without renal dysfunction receiving meropenem or piperacillin/tazobactam as an extended infusion. Serial blood samples were collected to describe the antibiotic pharmacokinetics. Urine samples were taken from a 24-hour collection to measure creatinine clearance. Relevant data were drawn from the electronic patient file and the intensive care information system.

RESULTS:

We obtained data from 61 patients and observed extensive pharmacokinetic variability. Forty-eight percent of the patients did not achieve the desired pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target (100% fT>MIC), of which almost 80% had a measured creatinine clearance>130 mL/min. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that high creatinine clearance was an independent predictor of not achieving the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target. Seven out of nineteen patients (37%) displaying a creatinine clearance>130 mL/min did not achieve the minimum pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target of 50% fT>MIC.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this large patient cohort, we observed significant variability in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment in critically ill patients. A large proportion of the patients without renal dysfunction, most of whom displayed a creatinine clearance>130 mL/min, did not achieve the desired pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target, even with the use of alternative administration methods. Consequently, these patients may be at risk for treatment failure without dose up-titration.

PMID:
23642005
PMCID:
PMC4056350
DOI:
10.1186/cc12705
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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