Send to

Choose Destination
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013 Jun;33(6):1135-44. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.301453. Epub 2013 May 2.

Transcriptional control of macrophage polarization.

Author information

Department of Medicine, University Hospitals Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, Case Cardiovascular Research Institute, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, University Hospital Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.


Macrophages are key regulators of many organ systems, including innate and adaptive immunity, systemic metabolism, hematopoiesis, vasculogenesis, malignancy, and reproduction. The pleiotropic roles of macrophages are mirrored by similarly diverse cellular phenotypes. A simplified schema classifies macrophages as M1, classically activated macrophages, or M2, alternatively activated macrophages. These cells are characterized by their expression of cell surface markers, secreted cytokines and chemokines, and transcription and epigenetic pathways. Transcriptional regulation is central to the differential speciation of macrophages, and several major pathways have been described as essential for subset differentiation. In this review, we discuss the transcriptional regulation of macrophages.


M1; M2; alternative activation; classical activation; macrophage

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center