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Nefrologia. 2013;33(3):381-8. doi: 10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2012.Oct.11540. Epub 2013 Feb 15.

The usefulness of intracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate measurement in CD4+ cells in renal transplant.

[Article in English, Spanish]

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1
Sección de Inmunología, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla. Santander, Spain. mlopezhoyos@humv.es

Abstract

ImmuKnow is an in vitro diagnosis method that uses patient samples of whole blood polyclonally stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin. It also measures adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production by CD4+ T cells. The test aims to offer an objective and overall measurement of each individual's cellular immune response. The assay was designed with the idea of individually monitoring the immunosuppression administered to transplant patients. At the same time, it aims to help achieve a balance as a way of avoiding immunosuppression excess and the associated adverse effects (infections, cancer, etc.) or an immunosuppression defect and the subsequent risk of allograft rejection. The majority of studies that have evaluated its clinical usefulness display great diversity in terms of patient recruitment, the immunosuppressant treatment received, the clinical variables analysed and, above all, the time between performing ImmuKnow and the evaluated clinical event. The most consistent data show that this assay on CD4+ T cell functioning is useful for predicting the risk of infection in renal transplant patients. However, its use as a rejection risk indicator is unclear. Lastly, given the great variability of immune response amongst individuals and that of existing publications, it can be deduced that the isolated ImmuKnow value does not have diagnostic capacity and only individual serial monitoring could provide definitive assistance in clinical decision making and immunosuppressant treatment changes. Other aspects of ImmuKnow application in the clinical routine, such as assay cycles, require randomised prospective studies for more comprehensive information.

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