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PLoS Genet. 2013 Apr;9(4):e1003485. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003485. Epub 2013 Apr 25.

The genome organization of Thermotoga maritima reflects its lifestyle.

Author information

1
Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Abstract

The generation of genome-scale data is becoming more routine, yet the subsequent analysis of omics data remains a significant challenge. Here, an approach that integrates multiple omics datasets with bioinformatics tools was developed that produces a detailed annotation of several microbial genomic features. This methodology was used to characterize the genome of Thermotoga maritima--a phylogenetically deep-branching, hyperthermophilic bacterium. Experimental data were generated for whole-genome resequencing, transcription start site (TSS) determination, transcriptome profiling, and proteome profiling. These datasets, analyzed in combination with bioinformatics tools, served as a basis for the improvement of gene annotation, the elucidation of transcription units (TUs), the identification of putative non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), and the determination of promoters and ribosome binding sites. This revealed many distinctive properties of the T. maritima genome organization relative to other bacteria. This genome has a high number of genes per TU (3.3), a paucity of putative ncRNAs (12), and few TUs with multiple TSSs (3.7%). Quantitative analysis of promoters and ribosome binding sites showed increased sequence conservation relative to other bacteria. The 5'UTRs follow an atypical bimodal length distribution comprised of "Short" 5'UTRs (11-17 nt) and "Common" 5'UTRs (26-32 nt). Transcriptional regulation is limited by a lack of intergenic space for the majority of TUs. Lastly, a high fraction of annotated genes are expressed independent of growth state and a linear correlation of mRNA/protein is observed (Pearson r = 0.63, p<2.2 × 10(-16) t-test). These distinctive properties are hypothesized to be a reflection of this organism's hyperthermophilic lifestyle and could yield novel insights into the evolutionary trajectory of microbial life on earth.

PMID:
23637642
PMCID:
PMC3636130
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1003485
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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