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World Dev. 2012 Mar 1;40(3):610-619.

Measurement of Women's Empowerment in Rural Bangladesh.

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BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, House 57, Road 6A, Dhanmondi R A, Dhaka 1209, Bangladesh, , ext 4121.


Women's empowerment is a dynamic process that has been quantified, measured and described in a variety of ways. We measure empowerment in a sample of 3500 rural women in 128 villages of Bangladesh with five indicators. A conceptual framework is presented, together with descriptive data on the indicators. Linear regressions to examine effects of covariates show that a woman's exposure to television is a significant predictor of three of the five indicators. A woman's years of schooling is significantly associated with one of two self-esteem indicators and with freedom of mobility. Household wealth has a significant and positive association with a woman's resource control but a significant negative association with her total decision-making score.


Bangladesh; Empowerment; South Asia; choice; measurement; self-esteem

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