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J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2013 Jan;17(1):12-5. doi: 10.4103/0972-124X.107467.

An overview of frenal attachments.

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Department of Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.


Frenal attachments are thin folds of mucous membrane with enclosed muscle fibers that attach the lips to the alveolar mucosa and underlying periosteum. Most often, during the oral examination of the patient the dentist gives very little importance to the frenum, for assessing its morpholology and attachment. However, it has been seen that an abnormal frenum can be an indicator of a syndrome. This paper highlights the different frenal attachments seen in association with various syndromic as well as non-syndromic conditions.


Aberrant frena; frenulum; syndromes

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