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J Biomech. 2013 May 31;46(9):1489-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.03.036. Epub 2013 Apr 28.

Dose-response effects of customised foot orthoses on lower limb kinematics and kinetics in pronated foot type.

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Institute for Applied Health Research, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK.


Despite the widespread use of customised foot orthoses (FOs) for the pronated foot type there is a lack of reliable information on the dose-response effect on lower limb mechanics. This study investigated these effects in subjects with normal and pronated foot types. Customised FOs were administered to 12 participants with symptomatic pronated foot type and 12 age and gender matched controls. A computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to design nine FOs per participant with dose incrementally changed by varying only the rearfoot post angle. This was done in 2° increments from 6° lateral to 10° medial posting. A 3D printing method was used to manufacture the FOs. Quantification of the dose-response effect was performed using three-dimensional gait analyses for selected rearfoot and knee kinematics and kinetics. Under these experimental conditions, significant and linear effects of posting were seen for the peak (p<0.001) and mean (p<0.001) rearfoot eversions, peak (p=0.003) and mean (p<0.001) ankle eversion moments and peak (p=0.017) and mean (p=0.005) knee adduction moment variables. Group effects were observed for the peak (p=0.007) and mean (p=0.007) forefoot abduction and for the peak (p=0.007) knee adduction moment. A significant interaction between posting and group was seen for internal tibial rotation (p=0.004). These data indicate that a dose-response effect, with a linear trend for both the rearfoot and knee, exists for customised FOs used to treat pronated foot type.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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