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J Proteomics. 2013 Jun 24;85:28-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.04.024. Epub 2013 Apr 28.

Identification of potential bladder cancer markers in urine by abundant-protein depletion coupled with quantitative proteomics.

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1
Chang Gung Bioinformatics Center, Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan.

Abstract

In this study, we evaluated the reproducibility of abundant urine protein depletion by hexapeptide-based library beads and an antibody-based affinity column using the iTRAQ technique. The antibody-based affinity-depletion approach, which proved superior, was then applied in conjunction with iTRAQ to discover proteins that were differentially expressed between pooled urine samples from hernia and bladder cancer patients. Several proteins, including seven apolipoproteins, TIM, SAA4, and proEGF were further verified in 111 to 203 individual urine samples from patients with hernia, bladder cancer, or kidney cancer. Six apolipoproteins (APOA1, APOA2, APOB, APOC2, APOC3, and APOE) were able to differentiate bladder cancer from hernia. SAA4 was significantly increased in bladder cancer subgroups, whereas ProEGF was significantly decreased in bladder cancer subgroups. Additionally, the combination of SAA4 and ProEGF exhibited higher diagnostic capacity (AUC=0.80 and p<0.001) in discriminating bladder cancer from hernia than either marker alone. Using MetaCore software to interpret global changes of the urine proteome caused by bladder cancer, we found that the most notable alterations were in immune-response/alternative complement and blood-coagulation pathways. This study confirmed the clinical significance of the urine proteome in the development of non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of bladder cancer.

BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE:

In this study, we evaluated the reproducibility of abundant urine protein depletion by hexapeptide-based library beads and an antibody-based affinity column using the iTRAQ technique. The antibody-based affinity-depletion approach, which proved superior, was then applied in conjunction with iTRAQ to discover proteins that were differentially expressed between pooled urine samples from hernia and bladder cancer patients. Several proteins, including seven apolipoproteins, TIM, SAA4, and proEGF were further verified in 111 to 203 individual urine samples from patients with hernia, bladder cancer, or kidney cancer. SAA4 was significantly increased in bladder cancer subgroups, whereas ProEGF was significantly decreased in bladder cancer subgroups. Additionally, the combination of SAA4 and ProEGF exhibited higher diagnostic capacity in discriminating bladder cancer from hernia than either marker alone. A marker panel composed by two novel biomarker candidates, SAA4 and proEGF, was first discovered and verified successfully using Western blotting. To the best of our knowledge, the associations of urinary SAA4 and proEGF with bladder tumor and kidney cancer have not been mentioned before. In the present study, we discovered and verified SAA4 and proEGF as potential bladder cancer biomarker for the first time.

PMID:
23631828
DOI:
10.1016/j.jprot.2013.04.024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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