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J Biol Chem. 2013 Jun 14;288(24):17689-97. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.448381. Epub 2013 Apr 29.

The immunologically active oligosaccharides isolated from wheatgrass modulate monocytes via Toll-like receptor-2 signaling.

Author information

1
Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan.

Abstract

Wheatgrass is one of the most widely used health foods, but its functional components and mechanisms remain unexplored. Herein, wheatgrass-derived oligosaccharides (WG-PS3) were isolated and found to induce CD69 and Th1 cytokine expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In particular, WG-PS3 directly activated the purified monocytes by inducing the expression of CD69, CD80, CD86, IL-12, and TNF-α but affected NK and T cells only in the presence of monocytes. After further purification and structural analysis, maltoheptaose was identified from WG-PS3 as an immunomodulator. Maltoheptaose activated monocytes via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) signaling, as discovered by pretreatment of blocking antibodies against Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and also determined by click chemistry. This study is the first to reveal the immunostimulatory component of wheatgrass with well defined molecular structures and mechanisms.

KEYWORDS:

Carbohydrate Function; Immune Activation; Maltoheptaose; Monocytes; Natural Products; Oligosaccharide; Toll-like Receptors (TLR); Wheatgrass

PMID:
23629653
PMCID:
PMC3682569
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.M112.448381
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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