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Hum Immunol. 2013 Aug;74(8):1015-23. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2013.04.022. Epub 2013 Apr 27.

Neem leaf glycoprotein overcomes indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase mediated tolerance in dendritic cells by attenuating hyperactive regulatory T cells in cervical cancer stage IIIB patients.

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Departmant of Immunoregulation and Immunodiagnostics, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute (CNCI), 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700026, India.


Tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) are a subset of DCs characterized by abundant indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) expressions. IDO may be co-operatively induced in DCs by regulatory T (Tregs) cells and various DC maturation agents. Tregs are markedly amplified in the physiological system of cancer patients, inducing over tolerance in DCs that leads to the hyper accumulation of immunosuppressive IDO in tumor microenvironment, thereby, hampering anti-tumor immunity. Consequently, a major focus of current immunotherapeutic strategies in cancer is to minimize IDO, which is possible by reducing Tregs and using various IDO inhibitors. Neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP), a natural and nontoxic immunomodulator, demonstrated several unique immunoregulatory activities. Noteworthy activities of NLGP are to mature DCs and to inhibit Tregs. As Tregs are inducer of IDO in DCs and hyperactive Tregs is a hallmark of cancer, we anticipated that NLGP might abrogate IDO induction in DCs by inhibiting Tregs. Evidences are presented here that in a co-culture of DCs and Tregs isolated from cervical cancer stage IIIB (CaCx-IIIB) patients, NLGP does inhibit IDO induction in DCs by curtailing the over expression of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) on Tregs and concomitantly induces optimal DC maturation. In contrast, in the presence of LPS as maturation agent the DCs displays a tolerogenic profile. This finding suggests the reduction of tolerogenecity of DCs in CaCx-IIIB patients by reducing the IDO pool using NLGP. Accordingly, this study sheds more light on the diverse immunomodulatory repertoire of NLGP.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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