Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013 Aug;23(4):559-63. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2013.03.011. Epub 2013 Apr 27.

Negative reinforcement in drug addiction: the darkness within.

Author information

1
Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA. gkoob@scripps.edu

Abstract

Drug seeking is associated with the activation of reward neural circuitry, but I argue that drug addiction also involves another major source of reinforcement, specifically negative reinforcement driven by the 'dark side' (i.e., a decrease in the function of normal reward-related neurocircuitry and persistent recruitment of the brain stress systems). This combination forms the antireward system or 'darkness within.' Understanding the neuroplasticity of the neurocircuitry that comprises the negative reinforcement associated with addiction is the key to understanding the vulnerability to the transition to addiction, misery of addiction, and persistence of addiction.

PMID:
23628232
DOI:
10.1016/j.conb.2013.03.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center