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Arch Pediatr. 2013 Jun;20(6):646-9. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2013.03.025. Epub 2013 Apr 28.

[Acute transverse myelitis and Lyme borreliosis: a case report].

[Article in French]

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Service de pédiatrie médicale, centre hospitalier Jacques-Monod, rue Eugène-Garnier, BP 219, 61104 Flers cedex, France.


Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by a spirochete of the Borrelia sensu lato group. Its incidence has greatly increased in recent years. The main vector is a tick of the Ixodes family. Clinical manifestations are multiple and show the multi-organ character of the disease. In terms of frequency, joint and neurological presentations, respectively more frequent in North America and Europe, are the main manifestations after cutaneous symptoms, of which erythema migrans is the most common, followed by cardiac and ocular signs. Other signs exist but are anecdotal. Neuroborreliosis manifests itself most often with peripheral facial palsy, but there are other clinical forms, which include acute myelitis (4-5% of neuroborreliosis). We present here the case of a 16-year-old teenager with acute myelitis and meningeal involvement due to Lyme disease, who presented with atypical symptoms (massive and rapid weight loss, vomiting). MRI showed localized marrow edema as well as leptomeningeal and root enhancement. Lumbar puncture showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. Lyme serology was positive both in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Even if acute myelitis remains exceptional among neuroborreliosis manifestations, this diagnosis has to be thought of when a child presents with unexplained neurological symptoms.

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