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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2013 Jun;41(6):524-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2013.02.017. Epub 2013 Apr 24.

High prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase RmtB among CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from Islamabad, Pakistan.

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Health Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan, an affiliated institute of Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan.


The aim of this study was to characterise extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from urinary tract and wound infections from Pakistan (n=25). Isolates were subjected to commercially available microarray analysis to determine the presence of ESBLs and acquired AmpC enzymes. The genetic diversity of the isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Plasmid replicon typing and capsular serotyping were conducted by PCR. Finally, screening for virulence genes, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, and genes encoding 16S rRNA methylases was done using PCR. All K. pneumoniae isolates hosted blaCTX-M genes and all strains belonged to phylogroup CTX-M-1. Acquired AmpC β-lactamases (ACT/MIR and CIT group) were found in 16% of isolates. Two clusters were observed with ≥80% similarity among profiles obtained by PFGE, and two sequence types (STs) by MLST, namely ST215 and ST307, were observed in these clusters. Three ST215 isolates carried virulence factor wcaG and three ST215 isolates had capsular type K20. IncFIA, IncFIB, IncFIIK and FrepB replicons were most commonly found in this collection. Among the PMQR determinants, aac(6')-lb-cr was present in 96% (24/25) of the isolates, qnrB was found in 88% (22/25) and qepA was found in 4% (1/25). The 16S rRNA methylase-encoding gene rmtB was found in 60% (15/25) of the isolates. In conclusion, CTX-M-producing ST215 and ST307 K. pneumoniae were the two major clones detected. Of particular concern was the high prevalence of 16S rRNA methylases conferring resistance to all aminoglycosides.

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