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Transplant Proc. 2013 Apr;45(3):1133-6. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.03.007.

Intestinal and multivisceral retransplantation results: literature review.

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Santa Casa Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.



Intestinal/multivisceral transplantation (IT/MVT) is the gold standard treatment for patients with intestinal failure and complications related to total parenteral nutrition, gastrointestinal inoperable indolent tumors, or diffuse portal trombosis. Currently, the reported 1-year patient survival rate is around 80%, similar to other solid organ abdominal transplantations. Unfortunately, the patient survival decreases after the first year with the 5-year rate not close to 70% yet. Acute cellular rejection is the main cause of graft loss. Its early diagnosis may make it possible to improve survival of retransplantations.


To analyze the reported results published in the last 5 years by leading transplant centers to evaluate IT/MVT retransplantation results.


We performed a literature review using PubMed focusing on multivisceral and intestinal retransplantation in articles published between 2006 and 2012. In relation to the first transplantation, we analyzed demographics, imunosuppression, rejection, infection as well as graft and patient survival rates.


Two centers reported results on intestinal and multivisceral retransplantations. Mazariegos et al reported their experience with 15 intestinal retransplantations in 14 pediatric recipients. Four patients died from posttransplant lymphoperliferative disease, severe acute cellular rejection, fungal sepsis, or bleeding from a pseudoaneurysm at a mean time of 5.7 months post-transplantation. Total parenteral nutrition was weaned at a median time of 32 days. Abu-Elmaged et al reported 47 cases with a 5-year survival of 47% for all retransplant modalities. Retransplantation with liver-contained visceral allograft achieved a 5-year survival rate of 61% compared with 16% for liver-free visceral grafts.


Despite those huge improvements, some transplanted patients develop severe acute cellular rejection, culminating in graft loss and retransplantation. Repots on multivisceral and intestinal retransplantation outcomes suggest that it is a viable procedure with appropriate patient survival after primary graft loss.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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