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J Endocrinol. 2013 Jun 1;218(1):61-73. doi: 10.1530/JOE-13-0139. Print 2013 Jul.

High-salt diets during pregnancy affected fetal and offspring renal renin-angiotensin system.

Author information

1
Institute for Fetology and Reproductive Medicine Center, First Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, People's Republic of China. maocaiping@suda.edu.cn

Abstract

Intrauterine environments are related to fetal renal development and postnatal health. Influence of salty diets during pregnancy on renal functions and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was determined in the ovine fetuses and offspring. Pregnant ewes were fed high-salt diet (HSD) or normal-salt diet (NSD) for 2 months during middle-to-late gestation. Fetal renal functions, plasma hormones, and mRNA and protein expressions of the key elements of renal RAS were measured in the fetuses and offspring. Fetal renal excretion of sodium was increased while urine volume decreased in the HSD group. Fetal blood urea nitrogen was increased, while kidney weight:body weight ratio decreased in the HSD group. The altered ratio was also observed in the offspring aged 15 and 90 days. Maternal and fetal plasma antidiuretic hormone was elevated without changes in plasma renin activity and Ang I levels, while plasma Ang II was decreased. The key elements of local renal RAS, including angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, AT1, and AT2 receptor expression in both mRNA and protein, except renin, were altered following maternal high salt intake. The results suggest that high intake of salt during pregnancy affected fetal renal development associated with an altered expression of the renal key elements of RAS, some alterations of fetal origins remained after birth as possible risks in developing renal or cardiovascular diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Fetus; high salt; offspring; renal function; rennin–angiotensin system

PMID:
23620529
PMCID:
PMC4406098
DOI:
10.1530/JOE-13-0139
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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