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J Endod. 2013 May;39(5):597-9. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2013.01.008. Epub 2013 Mar 20.

A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of the injection pain and anesthetic onset of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine buffered with 5% and 10% sodium bicarbonate in maxillary infiltrations.

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  • 1Department of Endodontics, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, Dallas, Texas 75246, USA.



Local anesthetics can be buffered to a physiological pH before injection to decrease the time of onset and reduce injection pain.


Thirty subjects with intact maxillary canines were included. The subjects randomly received, in a double-blind manner, 1 of the 3 maxillary infiltration injections of 1.8 mL 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine buffered at 5% and 10% with sodium bicarbonate by volume at 3 separate appointments. Pain on needle penetration and deposition of anesthetic solution was recorded by using a Heft-Parker visual analogue scale. Anesthetic onset was determined by 2 consecutive negative responses to electronic pulp test.


The mean anesthetic onset for nonbuffered anesthetics was 119 seconds, 116 seconds for the 5% buffered solutions, and 121 seconds for the 10% buffered solutions. There was no significant difference between the 3 groups. There was also no significant difference in pain on needle penetration or anesthetic deposition between the 3 anesthetic solutions tested.


Two percent lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine buffered with 5% or 10% sodium bicarbonate did not differ from nonbuffered solutions in anesthetic onset or injection pain in maxillary infiltrations of canines with healthy pulps.

Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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