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Bone Joint Res. 2012 Jan 1;1(1):1-7. doi: 10.1302/2046-3758.11.2000007. Print 2012 Jan.

Extracorporeal human bone-like tissue generation.

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Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, POB 9602, Haifa 31096, Israel.



The need for bone tissue supplementation exists in a wide range of clinical conditions involving surgical reconstruction in limbs, the spine and skull. The bone supplementation materials currently used include autografts, allografts and inorganic matrix components; but these pose potentially serious side-effects. In particular the availability of the autografts is usually limited and their harvesting causes surgical morbidity. Therefore for the purpose of supplementation of autologous bone graft, we have developed a method for autologous extracorporeal bone generation.


Human osteoblast-like cells were seeded on porous granules of tricalcium phosphate and incubated in osteogenic media while exposed to mechanical stimulation by vibration in the infrasonic range of frequencies. The generated tissue was examined microscopically following haematoxylin eosin, trichrome and immunohistochemical staining.


Following 14 days of incubation the generated tissue showed histological characteristics of bone-like material due to the characteristic eosinophilic staining, a positive staining for collagen trichrome and a positive specific staining for osteocalcin and collagen 1. Macroscopically, this tissue appeared in aggregates of between 0.5 cm and 2 cm.


We present evidence that the interaction of the cellular, inorganic and mechanical components in vitro can rapidly generate three-dimensional bone-like tissue that might be used as an autologous bone graft.


Bone; Bone graft; Bone regeneration; Extracorporeal; Osteoblast; Osteogenesis

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