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Am J Sports Med. 2013 Jun;41(6):1302-9. doi: 10.1177/0363546513484692. Epub 2013 Apr 22.

Anatomic double-bundle reconstruction techniques result in graft obliquities that closely mimic the native anterior cruciate ligament anatomy.

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Barunsesang Hospital, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.



It has been reported previously that single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with more accurate restoration of the footprint of the native ACL fails to restore the graft obliquity of the native ACL in the coronal plane. Whether double-bundle ACL reconstruction restores the graft obliquity of each bundle of the native ACL has not yet been determined.


Anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction using transportal (TP) and outside-in (OI) techniques can restore the graft obliquities of both anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles in the native ACL in both sagittal and coronal planes.


Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.


Seventy-six patients underwent anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction. Patients were randomized to 2 groups to undergo either TP or OI tibial tunnel-independent anatomic ACL reconstruction. All participants underwent postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of both knees, and the native ACL obliquity was determined using the participant's contralateral knee. Graft obliquities were determined by measuring the angles between the center line of the graft and the surface line of the tibial plateau, and the obliquities of paired knees were compared. Graft obliquities were analyzed in each group.


In the sagittal plane, the mean AM graft obliquity was 54.2° on the operated side and 54.6° on the nonoperated side, and the difference between sides was not statistically significant (P = .352). The mean PL graft obliquity in the sagittal plane was 54.1° on the operated side and 53.0° on the nonoperated side, and the difference between sides was also not statistically significant (P = .228). In the coronal plane, the mean AM graft obliquity was 73.8° on the operated side and 73.4° on the nonoperated side, and the mean PL graft obliquity was 65.5° on the operated side and 66.4° on the nonoperated side. There were no statistically significant differences between sides (P = .418 for AM graft; P = .328 for PL graft). Differences in the paired graft obliquities in each group were also statistically insignificant between the TP and OI groups.


Both TP and OI anatomic double-bundle reconstruction techniques can result in graft obliquities in both bundles that resemble the native ACL in both sagittal and coronal planes.


Double-bundle ACL reconstruction techniques might more closely restore the normal kinematics of the native ACL by restoring the normal obliquity of both ACL bundles.


anterior cruciate ligament; double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; graft obliquity; outside-in technique; transportal technique

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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