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J Urol. 2013 Oct;190(4):1207-12. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.04.044. Epub 2013 Apr 19.

Socioeconomic variation and prostate specific antigen testing in the community: a United Kingdom based population study.

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Division of Population Health Sciences, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom; Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow (CM), Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.



We examined the association of prostate specific antigen testing with prostate cancer incidence, tumor differentiation and mortality according to socioeconomic status.


Participants were 96,484 men between 40 and 99 years old without preexisting prostate cancer who were registered with a general practitioner in the Tayside region of Scotland, United Kingdom, between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2008. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis using anonymized health data, including biochemistry data on prostate specific antigen tests, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, cancer registry data set and General Register Office for Scotland death records. Main outcome measures were prostate specific antigen testing, prostate cancer incidence and death.


Men in the most affluent Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile had a greater chance of undergoing a prostate specific antigen test (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.40-1.57, p <0.001) and having prostate cancer (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.15-1.91, p = 0.002) than men in the most deprived quintile, adjusting for age. There was no association between deprivation index quintile and prostate cancer death.


Increased affluence was associated with a higher likelihood of a prostate specific antigen test and a higher incidence of prostate cancer. However, there were no observed differences by social class of the likelihood of a positive prostate specific antigen test or prostate cancer related death.


GP; PSA; SES; SIMD; Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation; general practitioner; mortality; prostate; prostate specific antigen; prostate-specific antigen; prostatic neoplasms; social class; socioeconomic status

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